Our usage of this word refers to the wealth or goods the families of the bride receive. Although the more correct term would be ‘bride price’ or ‘bride wealth’, we use the term dowry according to the vocabulary the NGOs and respondents in this research used.

Duty bearers

This term signifies actors who have a particular obligation to respect and promote rights and to abstain from human rights violations, such as religious leaders, civil servants and authorities. We often use this instead of the term ‘authorities’, to include broader categories of leaders.


We use employment to describe the paid work someone does in the service of an employer. It contrasts with self-employment, which lacks the stability and security often inherent in formal employment.

Employment for stability

Employment for stability is a policy idea that suggests that the creation of employment in fragile states will contribute to stability. See this 2015 study by Brück, Krisko and Tedesco (pdf)  Employment is expected to lower the risk that young men opt for violence. Though debated, the idea has been influential in fragile states policy.

Fragile states

For this research, we adhere to the list of countries categorized as fragile by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Find the full list of countries here (in Dutch) . NGO consortium partners typically do so too. The MFA defines fragile states as follows: “Fragile states are characterized by poorly functioning state structures and institutions, a lack of trust in the government, a lack of social cohesion and national unity, structural human rights violations, and a weak economic and material infrastructure. Quoted from this evaluation report by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Dutch)  Fragile states lag strongly behind in achieving Millennium development goals.”.

Horizontal inequality

Horizontal inequality refers to inequality among culturally defined or faith-based groups, in contrast to vertical inequality which refers to inequality among households or individuals. More backgrounds can be found in this book by Stewart (2008)  It does not only refer to economic inequality, but also to political and/or social inequality.


This is a term used in Burundi to describe an informal regular gathering of young people in public spaces.

Opportunity costs of violence

Opportunity costs refer to “the loss of potential gain from other alternatives when one alternative is chosen” (New Oxford American Dictionary). For example, a person opting for violence would have to forfeit current or future job opportunities. See this study by Collier, Hoeffler and Roehne (2008) A lack of income or economic prospects implies that the opportunity costs of violence are low, hence the risk of engaging in violence is high.

Relative deprivation

This term refers to the discrepancy between what people believe they are entitled to and what they actually can have. This may include economic opportunities, political influence or status. See "Why men rebel" by Ted Robert Gurr It is argued that relative deprivation can to lead to frustration and, ultimately, violence.


Resilience refers to the capacity to bounce back and recover from shocks.


This term indicates the process of framing something (or someone) as a security issue. When issues or people are successfully ‘securitized’, they are perceived as a matter of security, justifying the use of exceptional measures. Policy shifts from normal politics to security politics. See this 1995 study by Weaver (pdf)  Current examples of such issues include migration or the youth bulge in fragile states.

Theory of change (ToC)

A theory of change is a comprehensive description and illustration of how and why a desired change is expected to happen in a particular context. This website further explains what is a theory of change NGOs use ToCs to show how their interventions will lead to the intended outcomes.

Technical and vocational education and training (TVET)

Technical and vocational education and training refers to “those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, As defined by UNESCO attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupation in various sectors of economic life.”

Village savings and loan association (VSLA)

A village savings and loan association is an organized group of people who, by saving together, provide the opportunity for small loans to members.

Young people or youth

This term is not used to refer to one specific age range, but rather to people who are transitioning into adulthood. Such transitions are typically associated with events such as marriage, owning land or financial independence. Mercy Corps, for example, Mercy Corps applies the concept in this interesting study defines “youth” as “a period of progression toward independent responsibility. The timetable for transition to adulthood varies. Particularly in transitional environments, formal or informal processes of initiation may be interrupted or delayed”.